In 1947, the partition of India was originally the partition of British India. This division was made on the basis of religious demographics.
The main reasons behind the partition of India were the cultural, political, religious, economic and social dissimilarities between the two major communities. These differences gave birth to a theory known as Two-Nation Theory which paved way for the Indian Independence 1947.
CHANGE IN POLITICAL VIEWS
Jinnah first entered into politics in 1906 through Calcutta Session of All India National Congress and later joined Muslim League in 1913. Quaid-e-Azam was of opinion that both Hindus and Muslims should get joint efforts to get rid of the British rule. He did a lot of work to bring both Hindus and Muslims together.
Jinnah’s sincere efforts to build Hindu- Muslim unity were offensively defeated by the publication of Nehru Report which forced him to part his ways with the Congress.
2-ROUND TABLE CONFERENCE
He was disgusted and resentful and decided to leave India and settle in England. While his stay he represented the Muslims in Round Table Conference.
After his return to India, the provincial elections of act 1935 were held in 1937 in which the Congress obtained clear majority. The atrocities of Congress after being in power distressed Jinnah to find Congress acting in a highly anti-Muslim behaviour.
This behaviour of Hindus changed his views of Hindu-Muslim unity.
DAY OF DELIVERENCE
By 1939, Jinnah emerged as an un-disputed leader of the Muslims. He gave a call to the Muslims to observe a “Day of Deliverance” when the Congress resigned.
STAUNCH SUPPORTER OF TWO-NATION THEORY
He was a staunch supporter of the Two-Nation Theory and he considered the Muslims a separate nation from every aspect. He said,
“The Muslims are a Nation by every right to establish their separate homeland. They can adapt any mean to promote and protect their spiritual, moral, economic, social, political and cultural interests”.
LAHORE RESOLUTION AND PARTITION OF INDIA
The Lahore Resolution was passed on 23rd March, 1940 and in his presidential address he said,
“Hindu and Muslim belong to two different religions based on totally different beliefs and present the different ideologies. They have different heroes, different epics and different episodes. Therefore, the union of two nations is fatal for the subcontinent because it is not based on equality but on numerical minority and other as a majority. It would be better for the British Government to partition the subcontinent by keeping in view the interests of two nations. It will be a correct decision religiously and historically”.
The British Government appointed a delegation under Sir Stafford Cripps to present the constitutional reforms to the Indians. Both the Congress and the Muslim League under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah rejected as it did not confirmed to the partition of India and the establishment of Pakistan.
INDEPENDENCE OF INDIA 1947
At last, India was partitioned in 1947. On the midnight of 15th August 1947, the two self-governing countries of India and Pakistan came into existence and India was partitioned. Pakistan Independence day is celebrated on 14th August 1947 and it followed by Indian Independence on 15th August 1947.
MUHAMMAD ALI JINNAH, A GREAT LEADER
His determination was un-breakable for the partition of India and emergence of solely Muslim country. His aim to protect Muslim interests make the Two-Nation Theory workable, he had done a lot of hard work. He set a great example of leadership for the whole world to follow.